It is one of the best-established ancient language families at par with Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic and Uralic written and spoken forms. Austronesian is aptly termed as the vast majority of syllabic languages are spoken on archipelagic domains and islands. According to Otto Dempwolff, a German scholar, although many Austronesian languages have very few speakers, the major Austronesian languages are spoken by tens of millions of people.
It comprises spoken and written forms or one-fifth of the known languages of the world. The geographical span of the homelands of its languages is also among the widest, ranging from Madagascar to Pacific Polynesia Bellwood While previous literatures points to the Sanskrit and SE Asian origins of Baybayin, this paper will show that the Syllabary is endemic to the Philippines. An associative origin linking Baybayin script to Giant Clams Kabibe or Taklobo was studied by Comandante and a subject of his Dissertation.
What are Giant Clams? Known in Palawan as Taklobo, these are the largest living bivalves that produce massive lime shells through calcium carbonate biomineralization. Giant clams comes in various sizes, the smallest measures six inches and the largest over four feet in lenght. The big ones can weigh more than kilograms comparable to one drum of oil.
The photosymbionts or algae live inside the soft tissues of the clam called mantle that receives sunlight and convert energy into Taklobo food. The mantle or meat common favorite-manlet, a smaller variety is eaten by coastal dwellers but the adductor muscle responsible for the shell opening and closing is a delicacy. The picture below was taken on May 07, in Matina, Davao City. The meter long giant calm was excavated right where the restaurant is located on top of a hill overlooking the city.
Evidences of large clams found all over the island are testimonies why in , five years after landing in Philippine shores, the Spaniards named Mindanao Gran Moluccas. The Boxer Codex, the first book written about Filipinos, explicitly mentioned of Filipino adeptness in Baybayin speaking and writing. Women were particularly singled out as well versed in writing on leaves and bamboo Roces Baybayin enabled Filipinos to understand each other, transcending regionalism and ethno-linguistic differences.
Boxer Codex mentioned of how Bisayans can understand Tagalog well. This can be partly explained by the compilation made by Pardo de Tavera in as seen below: It took the Spaniards 72 years to begin twisting our ancient Baybayin. By the time Doctrina Christiana was published in , many Filipinos slowly started abandoning the use of Baybayin in favor of the Latinized Tagalog based on Spanish Orthography.
Signing of names became fashionable using the newly introduced alphabetic Abakada. Outside Mangyan and Tagbanwa syllabary, usage of Baybayin today is confined to fancy writing and body tattoo. Going back to our ancient roots, difficult as it may sound, may lead us to understanding our identity as Filipinos. The primaryobjective of this paper is to show the central role giant clams provided in the development of the ancient Baybayin Script incorrectly branded as Alibata and show how the script was used by early inhabitants of the archipelago.
At present, all languages of the Philippines may be written using the modern Filipino alphabet officially adopted in , which includes all the letters of the Abakada. Letter case — Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. Basically, the two variants are alternative representations of the same letter, they have the same name and pronunciation.
Letter case is generally applied in a fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline, in mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing superior objects. In some contexts, it is conventional to use only one case, the terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word.
These terms originated from the layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the letters were stored in a separate case that was located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all.
By virtue of their impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much later came to be more commonly referred to as uppercase letters. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the word miniature. This has traditionally been regarded as a mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling. Miniscule is still less likely, however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters, the glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related.
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have higher or lower than the typical size. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders.
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In addition, with old-style numerals still used by traditional or classical fonts,6 and 8 make up the ascender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts, languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Varang Kshiti, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian, Glagolitic, the Georgian alphabet has several variants, and there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives, the upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The earliest certain ancestor of A is aleph, the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, in turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a pictogram of an ox head in proto-Sinaitic script influenced by Egyptian hieroglyphs, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended.
The Phoenician alphabet letter had a form that served as the base for some later forms.http://savedeo.com/chloroquine-phosphate-vs-zithromax-tab.php
Evolution of the Filipino alphabet
Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the Hebrew or Arabic aleph, the Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsula and left the letter unchanged. During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter A, first was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other permanent mediums.
There was also a style used for everyday or utilitarian writing. Variants also existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles, the known variants include the early semi-uncial, the uncial, and the later semi-uncial. At the end of the Roman Empire, several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe.
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By the 9th century, the Caroline script, which was similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms, 15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the Italic and Roman forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version, the Italic form, also called script a, is used in most current handwriting and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter tau in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers, the Roman form is used in most printed material, it consists of a small loop with an arc over it.
Both derive from the majuscule form, in Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts then made the right leg vertical, in some of these, the serif that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form. Italic type is used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest. It continued to be used during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th century, the alphabet is well known because it was carefully documented by Catholic clergy living in the Philippines during the colonial era.
The term baybay literally means to spell in Tagalog, Baybayin was extensively documented by the Spanish.
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Many of these writing systems descended from ancient alphabets used in India over years ago, although Baybayin does share some, there is no evidence that it is this old nor is there evidence that it is recent. The Archives of the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, one of the largest archives in the Philippines, currently possesses the biggest collection of extant ancient Baybayin alphabets in the world.
A Baybayin bill, House Bill no. It aims to declare Baybayin, wrongfully known as Alibata, as the script of the Philippines. The bill mandates to put a Baybayin translation under all business, the writing system being pursued by the bill is a modernized version of the Baybayin which incorporates the common segments of numerous indigenous writing forms throughout the country.
The system is a nationalistic approach due to its comprehensive range. Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in and Antonio de Morga in , to be known by most Filipinos, and was generally used for personal writings, poetry, etc. According to William Henry Scott, there were some datus from the s who could not sign affidavits or oaths, there is no data on when this level of literacy was first achieved, and no history of the writing system itself.
There are at least six theories about the origins of Baybayin, the Kawi script originated in Java, and was used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia. It is a document, and has inscribed on it a date of Saka era One hypothesis therefore reasons that, since Kawi is the earliest attestation of writing on the Philippines, a second example of Kawi script can be seen on the Butuan Ivory Seal, though it has not been dated. An earthenware burial jar, called the Calatagan Pot, found in Batangas is inscribed with characters similar to Baybayin.
However, its authenticity has not yet been proven, many of the writing systems of Southeast Asia descended from ancient scripts used in India over years ago. The shapes of the characters bear a slight resemblance to the ancient Kavi script of Java, Indonesia. The Commonwealth was designed as an administration in preparation for the countrys full achievement of independence.
During its more than a decade of existence, the Commonwealth had a strong executive and its legislature, dominated by the Nacionalista Party, was at first unicameral, but later bicameral. In , the government selected Tagalog—the language of Manila and its surrounding provinces—as the basis of the national language, womens suffrage was adopted and the economy recovered to its pre-Depression level before the Japanese occupation in The Commonwealth government went into exile from to , when the Philippines was under Japanese occupation, in , the Commonwealth ended and the Philippines claimed full sovereignty as provided for in Article XVIII of the Constitution.
The constitution specifies the Philippines as the short form name and uses the Philippine Islands only to refer to pre status. Under the Insular Government, both terms had official status, the pre U. In December , the U. Congress passed the Hare—Hawes—Cutting Act with the premise of granting Filipinos independence, provisions of the bill included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports.
Quezon and was rejected by the Philippine Senate. A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30,, on February 8,, the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of to 1. The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23,, on 17 September , presidential elections were held. The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15,, the event was attended by a crowd of around , people.
The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic, a proper evaluation of the policies effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II. Japan launched an attack on the Philippines on December 8, Noong unang kalahating bahagi ng ika na siglo, ang mga Pilipinong wika ay sinusulat na gamit ang Palabaybayang Kastila Ortograpiyang Espanyol.
Jose Rizal ang unang nagmungkahi sa pag-indihenisado ng pagsulat sa Pilipinas. Santos ay gumawa ng bagong alpabeto na binubuo ng 20 na titik. Ang abakada ay naging alpabeto ng wikang Tagalog at ng Wikang Pambansa na Batay sa Tagalog ayon sa mungkahi ng pagsasakatutubo ni Rizal. Sinalaunan, ang abakada ay ginamit na rin sa mga ibang wika ng Pilipinas.. Ang Abakada ay nakaayos ayon dito.
Related alibata ang dating abakada
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